The amount of time the blood remains in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract before appearing in the vomit will determine its color and shade. A more extended period will result in a darker color, which may be dark red, black, or brown.
Anyone who vomits blood should seek medical attention immediately as it is a serious condition. If possible, bring a sample of the vomit to the doctor and note the time and quantity of the vomit, as well as any possible causes.
In this article, we look at the causes, symptoms, and treatment of coffee ground vomitus.
There are many potential causes of coffee ground vomitus, including:
- gastric ulcers
- esophageal varices, when swollen veins in the esophagus burst and bleed
- gastritis, irritation of the stomach lining
- cirrhosis, severe scarring on the liver and reduced liver function
- hemophilia B, an inherited blood clotting disorder that causes easy bruising and bleeding
- cancer of the esophagus, or food pipe
These conditions all require medical attention and treatment.
Anyone who vomits blood or a substance that resembles coffee grounds should seek immediate medical attention. If the person is unable to get to the emergency room, they should call for an ambulance.
Other symptoms that may indicate an emergency situation include:
- chest pain
- pale skin
- severe pain in the abdomen
- feeling of lightheadedness
- bright red blood in the vomit
- large clots in the vomit
The other symptoms that may accompany coffee ground vomitus will vary depending on the underlying condition.
Coffee ground vomitus usually indicates bleeding in the GI tract. If this occurs, a person should always seek a diagnosis from a doctor.
To diagnose the cause of coffee ground vomitus or any contributing factors, a doctor will ask the person if they are:
- experiencing any other symptoms
- taking any medications
- dealing with any other medical conditions
The doctor will then perform a medical exam to check the person. Following this, they will order one or more tests to determine the exact cause of the bleeding.
Most people will need blood tests and a chest X-ray to examine the area. In addition to this, a person may receive one or more of the following tests:
- Fecal occult blood test. This is to check for possible blood in the stool.
- Barium study. This examination uses an X-ray and a dye called barium to look for problem areas within the GI tract.
- Endoscopy. A doctor will insert a long thin tube with a light and camera down a person’s throat to examine the stomach, esophagus, and upper small intestine. They may also take a tissue sample.
- Colonoscopy. This involves passing a long thin tube with a light and camera through a person’s rectum to check the lower portion of the GI tract.
- Gastric occult blood test. This is to check for blood in a person’s vomit.
- Liver function tests. These check for problems in a person’s liver.
Once they have the results of the tests, the doctor can make a more accurate diagnosis and develop a treatment plan that will address the underlying condition causing the coffee ground vomitus.